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HMO Tutorials

Understand Human Milk Oligosaccharides better with our eLearning Courses and enrich your knowledge with an audio-visual digital experience.

HMO tutorials

Section 1

This section focusses on the unique composition of oligosaccharides in human breast milk, how they support infants’ immunity and factors affecting their quality and quantity.

Approx. Section Duration: timer50 Min

What are Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) and why are they important?

This tutorial focusses on the unique composition of oligosaccharides in human breast milk and how they support infants’ immunity.


After the completion of this tutorial, you should be able to: 
  • Appraise the role of human breast milk in protecting the infant.  
  • Recognize the unique HMO composition of human breast milk.   
  • Describe 4 ways by which HMOs can support immunity.

What Factors influence Oligosaccharides in Human Breast Milk?

This tutorial will provide an overview of the factors influencing the quantity and quality of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in human breast milk and discuss the basic metabolism of HMOs.


After the completion of this tutorial, you should be able to:
  • Understand the factors influencing the quantity and quality of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs).
  • Understand the basic metabolism of HMOs.
HMO tutorials

Section 2

This section provides an overview of the role of HMOs on the growth of gut microbiota and immune-modulation, and also the systemic beneficial effects that they confer.

Approx. Section Duration: timer55 Min

Role of HMOs in promoting the Growth of beneficial Bacteria

This tutorial will provide an understanding of the role of gut microbiota in infants’ health and review the key research findings on the role of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in nurturing bifidobacteria in breastfed infants.


After the completion of this tutorial, you should be able to:
  • Describe the role of gut microbiota in infants’ health
  • Appraise the key research findings on the role of HMOs in supporting healthy gut microbiota in breastfed infants

Immune Modulation and further systemic Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides

This tutorial provides an overview of the systemic effects of HMOs and reviews the key research findings on the systemic benefits of HMOs.


After completing this tutorial, the learners should be able to:
  • Recognize the systemic effects of human milk oligosaccharides.
  • Comprehend the key research findings on immune modulation of human milk oligosaccharides, particularly 2-fucosyllactose and lacto‐N‐neotetraose.
HMO tutorials

Section 3

This section reviews the role of gut microbiota in the immune health of infants and the recent evidence on the role of HMOs in protection against infections and necrotising enterocolitis.

Approx. Section Duration: timer65 Min

Protective benefits of HMOs against infections

This tutorial reviews the role of gut microbiota in immune health of infants and the recent evidence on the role of HMOs in protection against infections.


After completing this tutorial, the learners should be able to:
  • Describe the unique role of the gut barrier function in the immune health of infants
  • Comprehend the recent evidence on the role of HMOs in the protection of infants against infections

Role of Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Necrot...

This module discusses the role of human milk oligosaccharides in necrotising enterocolitis.


At the end of this module, the learners will be able to:
  • Understand the development of NEC and its risk in preterm infants
  • Identify the beneficial effects of HMOs in providing protection against NEC based on preclinical and mother-infant cohort studies
HMO tutorials

Section 4

This section will provide an overview of the most researched HMOs, the functional benefits of HMOs on the health of breastfed infants, and how they differ from non-human oligosaccharides like galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS).

Approx. Section Duration: timer45 Min

What do HMOs do, especially 2′FL and LNnT?

This tutorial will provide an overview of the most researched HMOs and the functional benefits of HMOs on the health of breastfed infants


After the completion of this tutorial, learners should be able to:
  • List the most researched HMOs and their known functional benefits
  • Identify the role of HMOs in supporting immune health and other important effects on an infant’s health

How do Galacto-Oligosaccharides/Fructo-Oligosaccharides (GOS/FOS) differ from Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs)?

This tutorial provides an insight about how non-human oligosaccharides like galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are currently used in some infant formulae, differ from HMOs and discusses the advantages of HMOs over GOS and FOS.


After the completion of this tutorial, learners should be able to:
  • Discuss the structural differences between HMOs and non-human oligosaccharides of plant or animal origin (e.g., GOS and FOS).
  • Identify the advantages of HMOs over GOS and FOS.
HMO tutorials

Section 5

This section discusses the safety and current regulatory perspectives of the addition of the HMO-2’FL and LNnT to infant formulae and supporting evidence on the prospective immune benefits.

Approx. Section Duration: timer50 Min

Addition of Human Milk Oligosaccharide-2′-fucosyllactose to infant Formulae

This module discusses the safety and current regulatory perspectives of the addition of the HMO-2’FL to infant formulae and supporting evidence on the prospective immune benefits.


After completing this tutorial, the learners should be able to:
  • Understand the safety and current regulatory perspectives of the addition of the HMO-2'FL to infant formulae.
  • Deduce the prospective immune benefits of supplementing infant formulae with HMO-2'FL.

Addition of HMOs-2′FL and LNnT to Infant Form...

This module helps provide the rationale behind adding HMOs to infant formula and introduce the first industrially produc...


After completing this tutorial, learners should be able to:
  • Recognize the immune benefits and safety of supplementing infant formulae with the HMOs-2′FL and LNnT.
  • Discuss the approved safety evaluation of 2’FL and LNnT for the use in infant formulae.
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