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How do HMOs support babies' immunity?

How do HMOs support babies' immunity?
How do HMOs support babies' immunity?
How do HMOs support babies' immunity?

HMOs support babies’ immunity in mainly 4 different ways:1-4

  • Promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria
  • Prevent pathogen adhesion in the gut and may protect against viral infections
  • Assist gut barrier function
  • Directly modulate the immune system


  • Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides: every baby needs a sugar mama. Glycobiology. 2012 Apr;22(9):1147-62.
  • Bode L. The functional biology of human milk oligosaccharides. Early Hum Dev. 2015 Nov;91(11):619-22.
  • Vandenplas Y, Berger B, Carnielli VP, Ksiazyk J, Lagström H, Luna MS, et al. Human Milk Oligosaccharides: 2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL) and Lacto-N-Neotetraose (LNnT) in Infant Formula. Nutrients. 2018;10(9):1161.
  • Morozov V, Hansman G, Hanisch FG, Schroten H, Kun z C. Human milk oligosaccharides as promising antivirals. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 Mar;62(6):e1700679.

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