icon
Q&A Zone

Find answers to the most commonly asked questions about Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) below.

HMOs are unique bioactive oligosaccharides, naturally present in human breast milk. HMOs represent the third largest solid component in human breast milk, with levels ranging between 5 and 15 g/L in mature human milk.1-3
References:
    ... Read More

Only 1% to 2% of HMOs are absorbed in the gut and reach the systemic circulation, as infants lack the enzymes necessary to digest HMOs. Therefore, the majority of HMOs reaches the lower gut unchanged, where they are fermented to some extent by beneficial gu... Read More

Breastfeeding has been associated with reduced risk of diarrhoeal diseases and respiratory tract infections in infants.1,2 HMOs may be partially responsible for this protective effect offered by human breast milk. Evidence suggests that HMOs in h... Read More

Levels of total HMOs seem to decrease over the course of lactation. HMOs range between 20 and 25 g/L in colostrum and 5 and 15 g/L in mature human breast milk.1,2 The levels of some of the most abundant HMOs, such as 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) a... Read More

Research has shown that the quantity and type of HMOs in human breast milk mirrors the mother’s blood group characteristics.1 The relative abundance of fucosylated HMOs is determined by the presence of several fucosyltransferase enzymes, wh... Read More

Various environmental factors are likely to affect HMOs in human breast milk. There is first evidence from a study in the Gambia, which shows that mothers nursing in the wet season produced significantly less HMOs compared to those nursing in the dry season... Read More

Currently, there is not much evidence to suggest whether the duration of pregnancy has a significant effect on the HMOs present in human breast milk. However, one recent study revealed that total HMOs in preterm breast milk does not differ from that of term... Read More

HMOs are a unique bioactive component of human breast milk, which are synthesised by the mammary gland. They have a complex structure consisting of 5 building blocks, namely glucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and sialic acid. All HMOs contain l... Read More

HMOs, the complex structures unique to human breast milk, are structurally different from the less complex oligosaccharides like galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)/ fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)  which are currently being added to infant formulae. HMOs hav... Read More

The amount and variety of oligosaccharides in human breast milk are unique and not found in bovine milk or milk from other farm animals. Levels of oligosaccharides are more than 100-fold higher in human breast milk than in cow’s milk; also the number ... Read More

More than 150 unique types of HMOs have been identified so far.1 They are classified into 3 different categories depending on their terminal position: namely, fucosylated HMOs, such as 2’FL; non-fucosylated HMOs, such as LNnT; and sialylate... Read More

HMOs, the third largest component of human breast milk, are synthesised by the mammary gland, thereby forming a natural part of human breast milk.1


Reference:


  1. Jantscher-Krenn E, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccha... Read More

2’fucosyllactose (2ʹFL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) are among the 10 most abundant oligosaccharides in human breast milk, which collectively constitute more than 75% of total HMOs. Interestingly, 2’FL, a fucosylated HMO, and LNnT, a non-fucos... Read More

Research suggests that HMOs support immunity in 4 main ways, as follows:

  • Promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria1,2
  • Preventing pathogens from binding to the intestinal wall, which reduces their ability to infe... Read More

Research has shown that breastfed infants have a high abundance of beneficial bacteria, such as bifidobacteria.1-3 Infants breastfed by secretor mothers with higher levels of 2-fucosylated HMOs, such as 2’FL, in their breast milk had a high... Read More

At birth, the baby’s immune system is still immature. A protective commensal gut microbiota is one of the key factors responsible for the maturation of the baby’s immune system. Breastfeeding is known to establish beneficial gut microbiota in in... Read More

Two clinical studies have shown that breastfed infants who received human breast milk abundant in fucosylated HMOs, like 2’FL, had a lower risk of developing diarrhoea due to Campylobacter jejuni or to enterotoxigenic E. coli. Also, ... Read More

HMOs may have an impact on the development of some allergies in children during the first two years of life. First evidence from a clinical study indicates that an abundance of 2’ fucosylated HMOs, especially 2ʹFL, in human breast milk may reduce the ... Read More

Research suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) serve as food to specifically promote the growth of certain beneficial gut bacteria. Furthermore, certain species of bifidobacteria and several other commensal gut bacteria ferment HMOs to shor... Read More
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) serve as metabolic substrates for specific beneficial gut bacteria and provide them with a growth advantage over potential pathogens.1,2,3 Evidence from experimental studies indicates that H... Read More
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) resemble glycans on the mucosa cell surface to which pathogens adhere. Due to this structural similarity, HMOs can act as decoy receptors by preventing pathogens from binding to the host cells, thus help reduce the risk of in... Read More
An accumulating body of evidence shows that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) directly and indirectly influence infant mucosal and systemic immune function.1-3 HMOs may act locally on the gut associated immune system or can directly modulate infant... Read More
Frist evidence from a randomised, clinical study suggests that t addition of the human milk oligosaccharide 2’fucosyllactose (2’FL) to infant formulae influences immune biomarkers similar to that of breastfed infants, in comparison to formulae with... Read More
Due to their highly complex structure, the replication of HMOs was not possible until recently. Breakthrough advances in biotechnology after almost 30 years of research and development activities by Nestlé along with their partners, has enabled the prod... Read More
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) can be either chemically synthesized or produced using a fermentation process for the addition to infant and follow-on formulae. Both these processes have been approved to be safe by the United States Food and Drug Administra... Read More
The synthesized HMOs 2’fucosyllactose (2’FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), are chemically and structurally identical to those in human breast milk, according to the United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) and the European Food Safety ... Read More
The HMOs 2’fucosyllactose (2’FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) are among the 10 most abundant HMOs in human breast milk and also the most researched.1-7 So far, the HMOs 2’FL and LNnt have been approved to be safe by the United St... Read More
Human milk contains more than 150 unique types of HMOs, of these 2’fucosyllactose (2’FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) are among the 10 most abundant.1-4 A randomised controlled clinical trial showed that infant formula added with a com... Read More
There are over 150 different human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in human milk, which are synthesised by the mammary gland.1 Scientists do not yet know if specific structures of HMOs have unique or similar or overlapping functions for the infant. Ini... Read More
The three main considerations for Nestlé selecting 2’fucosyllactose (2’FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) are as follows: Firstly, 2ʹFL and LNnT are among the 10 most abundant HMOs in human breast milk.1-3 Secondly, the HMOs 2ʹFL ... Read More
HMOs are the third most abundant component of human breast milk, after lactose and lipids, and are synthesized by the mammary gland.1,2HMOs are highly complex structures, while other oligosaccharides, which are added to infant formulae to mimic HMOs... Read More
The complex structures of HMOs may explain the additional functions of HMOs beyond what those oligosaccharides traditionally added to formulae can provide1. A clinical study provides first evidence that galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) when added to i... Read More
Two randomised, controlled clinical studies could show that infants fed formulae with human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) supported normal, age-appropriate growth similar to that of breastfed infants. In the study conducted by Puccio and colleagues, infants, w... Read More
Evidence from several clinical studies are promising: infant formula with the HMOs 2’fucosyllactose (2’FL) alone or in combination with lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) are well tolerated. In a randomized, controlled, clinical study, infant formu... Read More
First clinical evidence shows promising results: babies fed infant formula with the HMOs 2’fucosyllactose (2’FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), had stool microbiota closer to that of breastfed infants, in comparison to formula without these HMOs&n... Read More
An observational study of mother-infant pairs found promising results that higher levels of 2’fucosyllactose (2’FL), in mother’s milk was associated with a lower incidence of Campylobacter-induced diarrhoea in their babies during the first ye... Read More
Two randomised, controlled, clinical studies provide promising first evidence that infant formulae with the HMOs  2’fucosyllactose (2’FL) alone or in combination with lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), support the infant’s immune system. In ... Read More
icon
ASK AN EXPERT

Cannot find answers to your questions? Ask your question below to get answers from our experts on Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs).


Question


250 characters remaining


For any queries related to website or its content, please use the Contact Us section.

GO TO TOP